Astro Pi Flight Data Analysis
Do strange, unexplained things happen on the International Space Station? With this resource you can help us find out. The Astro Pis (above) are watching...
The two Astro Pis on the ISS were programmed to run the competition-winning programs as part of an automatic sequence. Each winning program ran for a week. After this sequence completed, the Astro Pis entered a flight recorder mode where they saved sensor readings to a database every 10 seconds. If anything strange happened, it was recorded!
Because the sensor readings were taken so often there's masses of data to search through, so we need your help to look through the data and find out what was going on. There could be strange, unexplained things, or just the normal day-to-day activities of the astronauts.
The Astro Pis were left in flight recorder mode for several weeks. This resulted in three large CSV files, created by Tim, which you can download and analyse. To help you get started with this we have obtained some example sensor readings from the ISS life support system. These show what certain activities look like when plotted on a graph, so that you can look for something similar in the Astro Pi data.
What are CSV files?
CSV stands for 'comma-separated values'- read (more explanation here). It's a very old file format used for storing tables of information as plain text. In some ways it's very similar to an Excel spreadsheet, but more basic with less features.
You can load a CSV file with any spreadsheet program, such as:
- Microsoft Excel
- LibreOffice Calc
- OpenOffice Calc
- Google Sheets
- Lotus 1-2-3
What's in the CSV files?
The CSV file contains sensor measurements in rows and columns. The columns each represent a different type of sensor, with an extra column to record a timestamp. Each row gives you a reading for every sensor, with the timestamp showing when the readings were taken. You can use this to look at how the sensor readings are changing over time.
Here is an example:
|ROW_ID||SENSOR 1||SENSOR 2||SENSOR 3||SENSOR 4||...||TIME STAMP|
So all measurements on a single row were taken at the time shown in the timestamp; note that they are each ten seconds apart. The CSV file you'll get from orbit thankfully won't have Sensor 1, 2 or 3, but more intuitive names that describe the data.
Here is a list of the columns you'll have:
|ROW_ID||A unique identifying number for each row. If you're collaborating with other people, it may be useful to have a way to specify the exact row number when you find something interesting in the data.||Database auto-increment.|
|temp_cpu||The temperature of the Raspberry Pi B+ CPU in degrees Celsius.||Raspberry Pi GPU mailbox (
|temp_h||The temperature in degrees Celsius.||Sense HAT humidity sensor.|
|temp_p||The temperature in degrees Celsius.||Sense HAT pressure sensor.|
|humidity||The percent relative humidity.||Sense HAT humidity sensor.|
|pressure||Air pressure in millibars.||Sense HAT pressure sensor.|
|pitch||An angle between 0 and 360 degrees giving the current pitch orientation.||Calculated from combined Sense HAT accel, gyro and mag readings.|
|roll||An angle between 0 and 360 degrees giving the current roll orientation.||Calculated from combined Sense HAT accel, gyro and mag readings.|
|yaw||An angle between 0 and 360 degrees giving the current yaw orientation.||Calculated from combined Sense HAT accel, gyro and mag readings.|
|mag_x||The magnetic field strength of the X axis in microteslas (µT).||Sense HAT magnetometer.|
|mag_y||The magnetic field strength of the Y axis in microteslas (µT).||Sense HAT magnetometer.|
|mag_z||The magnetic field strength of the Z axis in microteslas (µT).||Sense HAT magnetometer.|
|accel_x||The acceleration intensity of the X axis in Gs.||Sense HAT accelerometer.|
|accel_y||The acceleration intensity of the Y axis in Gs.||Sense HAT accelerometer.|
|accel_z||The acceleration intensity of the Z axis in Gs.||Sense HAT accelerometer.|
|gyro_x||The rotational intensity of the X axis in radians per second.||Sense HAT gyroscope.|
|gyro_y||The rotational intensity of the Y axis in radians per second.||Sense HAT gyroscope.|
|gyro_z||The rotational intensity of the Z axis in radians per second.||Sense HAT gyroscope.|
|reset||A copy of the Raspberry Pi CPU reset register. This is useful for looking at the frequency and effect of single event upsets. The values are only recorded once per boot.||Raspberry Pi GPU mailbox (
|time_stamp||The time at which the sensors were measured and the row was created.||Astro Pi real-time clock.|
There is an excellent guide to help you understand the sensors here if you need to familiarise yourself.
Where can I get the CSV files?
Right here! There are three CSV files on offer; the first two were collected in the Columbus module and the third one is from the Node 2/Unity module. Look here if you need a map of the ISS modules.
|Unit||Location on ISS||Length||Download|
|Astro Pi Vis (Ed)||Columbus||2 weeks||Download|
|Astro Pi Vis (Ed)||Columbus||4 weeks||Download|
|Astro Pi IR (Izzy)||Node 2||2 weeks||Download|
If you need help loading the file, we suggest searching the internet for help specifically related to the spreadsheet software you're using.
There's also an example CSV file, recorded using an Astro Pi on the ground. This was just left on an office desk to collect the data, but it could be useful for comparison. You can download it here.
How do I analyse the data?
Short answer: any way you like!
- Long answer:
There is no single correct way; there are many ways you can go about it. The easiest way, though, is to choose one or two sensors and use the chart function of your spreadsheet software to plot their columns on a line graph against the timestamp: here's an example using LibreOffice Calc on the Raspberry Pi. Then you can visually inspect the lines for sudden, drastic or gradual changes. Try to think about what would be causing them.
If you need help here, just go onto YouTube and search for how to plot a line graph in Excel, for example.
You could also look into using analytical software packages like Mathematica or MATLAB, both of which are free on the Raspberry Pi. It may be possible to produce some really interesting visualisations of the data using these.
The timestamp column could also be used to look up the location of the ISS, to add a geographical dimension to your analysis. There will be enough data to give you good global coverage, and you may be able to show that some sensor readings are affected by the location of the station.
You could even write code to automatically search for interesting or anomalous readings, to speed up the process.
What to look for
Thanks to the German Aerospace Center and the UK Space Agency, we have obtained some example sensor readings from the ISS life support system. These show what certain human activities will look like when plotted on a graph, so that you can look for something similar in the Astro Pi data.
Hard work is part of daily life in space for astronauts. Their bodies naturally radiate heat, and through perspiration or breathing they release moisture into the air that increases relative humidity. Because of this, humidity and temperature are two great indicators of crew activity. The graph below shows the crew deploying the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES, a big zero-g exercise machine) in the Columbus module.
Time is on the horizontal axis, with relative humidity on the vertical. They start working at 9:00 and you can see that relative humidity starts to increase. They go on their lunch break at about 12:30 and some more work starts around 16:30.
The next graph shows the temperature for the same activity. You can see there is some variation around the time when the crew are working, but the change is only minor at less than one degree. So you should perhaps consider temperature as a less reliable indicator of crew activity.
Time is on the horizontal axis, with temperature on the vertical.
CHX stands for Cabin Heat Exchanger, which is a machine that's responsible for keeping the internal temperature of the ISS comfortable for the crew to live and work in. The CHX core is a consumable item that needs to be replaced once every six weeks or so. Because the core has water flowing through it constantly, regular dry-outs are required to prevent microbial or fungal growth that could damage the machine or pose a health risk to the crew. So a CHX dry-out is the name of the maintenance activity where they change from one CHX core to the next.
During this maintenance, the water flowing through the CHX core is diverted to a backup unit, to allow the core to dry out so that it can be replaced. This causes a drop in cabin temperature, which reduces how much moisture can be suspended in the air, which in turn increases relative humidity. The temperature plot below shows the dry-out starting at about 07:45.
Time is on the horizontal axis, with temperature on the vertical.
At the same time a marked increase in relative humidity is recorded, due to the cooler air being less able to suspend water vapour. Time is on the horizontal axis, with relative humidity on the vertical.
Note how long it takes for the measurements to get back to normal. These events should be easy to spot in the data if you look at temperature and humidity together. The plot below also shows dew point, which you can calculate (if you want to) using this simple formula.
This occurs when they top up the oxygen supply on board the ISS. O2 re-pressurisation is also a regular maintenance activity that happens once every few months. The ISS has an oxygen recycling and carbon dioxide scrubbing system, but a bottle of compressed oxygen is periodically delivered to the ISS on a Progress cargo vehicle. This is then connected to the life support system and slowly released to top up the oxygen in the ecosystem, over the course of an hour or two.
When this happens, an increase in atmospheric pressure is recorded, as well as increased O2 content in the air. The Sense HAT cannot measure O2 content but it can measure air pressure, so you should be able to identify when these re-pressurisation events occur in the CSV data.
The first graph below shows O2 content in the air, and the second one shows total air pressure. Time is on the horizontal axis, with millimetres of mercury on the vertical. Note that the pressure data in the CSV files will be in millibars since this is the unit used by the Sense HAT.
1 atmosphere = 760 millimetres of mercury = 1013.25 millibars
The ISS is always losing 50 to 100 metres of altitude per day, and if left unchecked it would eventually re-enter the atmosphere and burn up like a meteorite! This happens because the ISS is in low Earth orbit (LEO), and even at the huge altitude of 400 km there is still a tiny amount of atmosphere present. That air creates drag on the ISS, which causes its orbit to slowly decay over time.
To avoid it burning up - or, rather, to keep on delaying it - the ISS is regularly given a re-boost by a docked spacecraft. A reboost fires the thrusters for a while to increase the altitude by the desired amount.
The graph below shows time on the horizontal axis, and the altitude of the ISS in kilometres on the vertical. You can see that, every now and again, the altitude jumps back up. These are the reboosts and you can see they happen in a somewhat irregular way; on the whole one or two occur per month.
The Astro Pi cannot measure altitude from inside the ISS, so this is not part of the CSV data. However, when an ISS reboost occurs the Pi can detect the force of acceleration being applied by the spacecraft thrusters. In microgravity, the accelerometer X, Y and Z axes should always read close to zero Gs. However, at least one or two axes will detect some force when the thrusters are being fired.
The crew say that they can feel when a reboost is happening, so the Sense HAT accelerometer should definitely have detected it. Therefore, you should be able to work out when the ISS reboosts occurred and how long they lasted. Go here for the latest altitude graph; you may be able to correlate this with the data in the CSV files.
South Atlantic Anomaly
High above the Earth, there is a layer of energetic charged particles trapped by the Earth's magnetic field. Most of these originate from the solar wind (matter ejected into space by the sun), and some are from cosmic rays. The layer begins at an altitude of about 1000 kilometres and goes up to around 60,000 kilometres. It's known as the Van Allen radiation belt, and the levels of radiation inside it are hazardous to satellites and spacecraft. Anything orbiting inside this belt needs to employ radiation shielding to be able to survive for a significant length of time.
The South Atlantic Anomaly is an area where the Van Allen radiation belt dips down to an altitude of just 200 kilometres above the Earth's surface, meaning that satellites in low Earth orbit experience higher than usual levels of radiation when passing through it. This includes the International Space Station.
This radiation interferes with electronic equipment and can bit-flip computer memory (change the state of a single binary bit from a
0 to a
1 or from a
1 to a
0), causing what's known as a single event upset crash. The white spots on this map indicate where electronic equipment on the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was affected in this way. The darker blue area is the South Atlantic Anomaly. Note the scale is in nanoteslas (nT), whereas the magnetometer values in the CSV data will be in microteslas (µT). 1 µT is equal to 1000 nT.
Using the magnetometer X, Y and Z data from the CSV files, along with the timestamp to look up latitude and longitude, you should be able to reproduce a heat map of the Earth's magnetic field strength like the one above. Then, using the reset column (the Raspberry Pi reset register), you'll be able to plot where the Astro Pi experienced an upset, and find out if it's being affected by the South Atlantic Anomaly.
The Astro Pi just reboots if it gets a single event upset. The reset field will only have data in the first row created after each boot of the Astro Pi, and at all other times it will be
0. The number
1000 means the Astro Pi has booted up from cold, whereas
20 means it's come back up after a reboot. Other numbers indicate that the Astro Pi has come up in a strange state and may not be working correctly.
Note: It appears that the Astro Pis did not suffer any single event upsets during the flight. We think the thick aluminium case must have provided a high degree of radiation shielding. So it won't be possible for you to use the reset field for this, but it should still be possible to make the heat map using the magnetometer data.
What to do when you find something
We'll be trying to collectively map out what we think was happening throughout the entire time the flight recorder mode was active. To contribute to this, please go to the Astro Pi forums and write a new post explaining your findings. This will then be verified by one of the team at Raspberry Pi and other members of the public.
How about capturing some flight recording data of your own? This will allow you to recreate what the Astro Pis in space are doing in your own classroom! When you feel you're ready to give this a try, there is an excellent resource on data logging here.