Absolutely. Its essentially the 'reverse' of what you do to make an SD card image from the download repository; and the directions are going to vary based on what tools you have available. I use the mac method, and the gnu/linux method because I have not used Windows since 1998. You may need to use the windows method.
I use gnu/linux and the dd command. The dd command is extremely dangerous, and requires great care and keeping ones wits about them at all times (you can blow your entire hard drive with it!
It basically looks like this:
sudo dd bs=4M if=/dev/mmcblk0 of=/Downloads/raspi_SD_card.img
What it does is copy from the input file (SD card device) (mounted in your PC) to the output file (image file on your PC) in 4M blocks .
This takes a long time (maybe ten minutes for an 8 gig card).
The SD card should be unmounted, so if your system mounts it automatically you will need to umount it as root using sudo.
The dd command will create an 8gig image file which can be written back out in the event of corruption.
PS notes: you will want to verify the accuracy of the backup. you can use md5sum or shasum to verify the image / or you can write the image back out to another SD card and compare the cards. I always verify my backups, but I've never had one that didn't work yet!
If you need to use the windows tools the idea is the same, just the commands and toolset is different. Read the procedure on the Raspi download site for details.
PPS ... here is the windows info:
https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentati ... windows.md