That looks good to me. You might want to look in /var/log/syslog for any information. Bluetooth can be flaky. I'd keep the speaker close by, and try the connect command several times. You might want to remove the device in bluetoothctl and pair again with it.
No those files have no effect on Bluetooth connections, and don't need to be changed for using a Bluetooth speaker.
[EDIT: You do have PulseAudio and the Bluetooth modules installed?
Code: Select all
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio pulseaudio-module-bluetooth
Shouldn't affect connecting, but you'll need them for streaming.]