RPI is very convenient for organizing streaming data. I think you can achieve your goal in several ways.
1. Use jaktd (or another program, for example, pulseaudio) https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/JA ... ection_Kit
Despite the fact that RPI officially abandoned pulseaudio, it also works.
2. Use usbip http://usbip.sourceforge.net/
3. Organize something like “streaming radio”: first, the microphone writes to disk, then the sound is broadcast over the network, for example, using icecast2
This method is convenient if you want to edit the recording from the microphone and the delay is not important for you, but the ability to transfer directly to many computers is important.
4. And finally, simply transfer using any protocol and GPIO. For example, I2S or even use PRI as a preliminary microphone amplifier and transmit the audio signal via an audio cable to another computer.