That's a very long list of things to try to answer. But here goes ...
Scratch can communicate with *anything* that listens to the broadcasts on the right socket/port. Simon's ScratchGPIO server, Gerhard's scratchClient, Pridopia's client ... it doesn't need to be Python just any system that can do sockets. It could even be another Squeak application. It could be on another device entirely - on another continent!
So, if you can find code to do the things you need and add some socket code, you can do whatever you need. There's nothing much specifically there in Scratch that will help, except possibly getting the time/date and maybe the temp/pressure off a SenseHAT. Using Scratch to tie it all together via the broadcasts might be an interesting way to manage it all, certainly.
Making Smalltalk on ARM since 1986; making your Scratch better since 2012