a project named amber can be found at open cores, not hard at all to simulate with free tools. remember no two engineers create the same design/code to the same problem (hardware or software) so this isnt exactly how the arm worked inside nor how current arms work inside, but you can still learn quite a bit by watching your code execute inside a chip.
And the instruction set from arm2 to arm4 and newer has a great deal of overlap, I think the differences were mostly related to the status registers, the basic alu, load/store, etc are the same or at least were built upon with armv4 and newer.
arm uses the amba/axi bus for interfacing not a wishbone, the details are more complicated but it is at the end of the day a modern bus with handshakes, various transactions can be in flight at the same time, etc.
Good links to arm assembly stuff, thank you very much, will definitely be spreading those links around...