This has been tested with the firmware from Jul 9 2019 from here. Running bare metal code requires the following new firmware files:
- bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb (did not work without)
Mailbox property functions work as before.
Code: Select all
Beside the new I/O base address 0xFE000000 for the BCM2835 peripherals, there is a new I/O region for the BCM2836 local peripherals at 0xFF800000 (from the QA7 document). It is not known, how many of these local peripheral registers are implemented, but some are.
MMU and caches
The MMU is fully compatible to that of the Cortex-A53 in both 32- and 64-bit mode (as far as I am using it). Only the translation tables have to be updated to cover the new I/O regions and the Highmem (above 1 GB).
Cache configuration has changed. The L1 data cache (per core) is 2-way with 256 sets of 64 byte cache lines. The L2 data cache (unique) is 16-way with 1024 sets of 64 byte cache lines. The length of the cache lines did not change.
Memory layout and Highmem
The basic memory layout (below 1GB, ARM / GPU memory split) is unchanged. The additional RAM of the RPi 4 is implemented as Highmem above 1GB. The well-known property mailbox function 0x00010005 does only return the available memory size on ARM side below the memory split for the GPU. The available Highmem size can be detected from the board revision (mailbox function 0x00010002).
There is a new GIC-400 interrupt controller available, which implements the GICv2 architecture (not GICv3!). It is not known, if the BCM2835 interrupt controller is still available and can be used to generate interrupts. The Distibutor window of the GIC-400 is at 0xFF841000 (unique) and the CPU Interface window at 0xFF842000 (each core "sees its own CPU Interface window at this address). Interrupt numbers can be taken from the device tree sources from Linux. 32 has to be added to SPI interrupt numbers and 16 to PPI numbers from these files.
Unfortunately it is difficult to use the FIQ with the GIC-400 without "kernel_old=1", because the required register settings can only be done from Secure Mode. A Secure Monitor has to be implemented to support this, which is possible in AArch32, but probably not in AArch64. Maybe one has to move to the "kernel_old=1" setting in config.txt to use the FIQ.
Multi-core support works as before (spin mailboxes / table). Inter-Processor-Interrupts (IPI) can be generated using the GIC-400 as SGIs.
Timer and GPIO clocks
The oscillator is running at 54 MHz now. To generate timer interrupts the ARMv7 per core CPU timer can be used (via the GIC). The BCM2835 system timer peripheral still exists, but I don't know, if it can still generate interrupts.
GPIO clock source Oscillator runs at 54 MHz now and PLLD at 750 MHz.
At least DMA channels 0-7 work as before, while channel 1 and 3 is used by the firmware and channel 7 is a LITE engine. Channel 8 should also work and is also a LITE engine, but has the same interrupt number as channel 7. Channel 9 and 10 are used by the firmware. There are new 40-bit DMA engines 11-14, which are unknown.
PWM audio is working differently and is currently unknown. There is a new PWM peripheral device dedicated to the PWM audio via the headphone jack. It's I/O address is probably "base of PWM0" + 0x800. It is not known, which GPIO clock this PWM device uses and which DMA DREQ selector must be used to program PWM audio on the RPi 4.
Audio using the VCHIQ "AUDS" service does luckily still work (via headphone jack and HDMI).
EDIT: HDMI audio tested