It looks like a reuse of a USB3 type A to type A lead as it happens to have right pairs to carry the one clock and two data pairs of PCI-Ex1 and presents it as a PCI-Ex16 socket. Power is applied externally, so they've probably repurposed the power lines for other purposes too.
Basically no, it extends a PCI-E socket, and the Pi doesn't have one of those.
Software Engineer at Raspberry Pi Trading. Views expressed are still personal views.
Please don't send PMs asking for support - use the forum.
I'm not interested in doing contracts for bespoke functionality - please don't ask.