Andrea
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Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 8:12 am

Hi folks,
I've just created a little spinoff of raspbian, it's not an huge project and it will never be. It's just a polished and optimized raspbian for folks like me who doesn't care about Xorg and other additional stuff.
I've decided to do so because each time I spend most of my time removing software from an original raspbian image to keep only what I really need. It was originally just a script to remove unused stuff then it turned on in something more complex.
I've kept: the kernel and various lib* packages, an SSH Daemon (dropbear) and few more. I've removed development libraries or compilers because I'd like to use it in a "production" like environment. I've maximized the RAM usage just by trimming unused services like NTP, switched to low memory consumption daemons (dropbear instead of a full blown openssh server), cutted down unused stuff (like virtual consoles). I didn't touched the original Raspbian kernel (yet) but I'm planning to do so to reduce memory footprint and have a smart boot process.
Another great feature is SD autoresizing, I've produced a 900Mb image, it will fit in every sd card from 1Gb and more, after installing it it will autoresize your root partition (while running) and adapt to your current SD. Install it in every card with at least 1Gb or more, you don't need a 4Gb card even if it's nice if you've it.
This is not a fork or a spinoff, it's just an attempt to produce a bootable image for folks like me: not directly interested in using the card for educational purposes and more focused on having a reliable embedded device.
Obviously I've kept Debian utilities, raspbian footprint and respositories so you can always turn back to a complete raspbian if you wish to

I've had in the past a small project called "Moebius", it was targeted to low power ARM embedded devices, now I've converted it to Raspberry and if you're interested you may take a look at:
http://moebiuslinux.sourceforge.net/
I've put it on sourceforge and I'm even looking for contributors if you're interested

Please share your comments if you're interested in it

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Sander
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 10:01 am

So ... what is left out from Raspbian? X? Or ... ?

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 10:24 am

these packages and utils are still in place, I've wiped everything else:
- Raspbian repositories (huge debian repos, lot of packages, ...)
- Debian main utils (locale, keyboard, timezone setup, ...)
- apt-utils and aptitude
- alsa-utils (for dealing with audio card)
- udev (for hotplugging)
- dropbear (replacement of openssh-server)
- inetutils-syslog instead of full syslogd
- raspi-config (rewritten from scratch)
I've wiped out everything else (X, compilers, xml libs, ...), I'm pretty sure I can trim out something more but this is just a starting point; I've also shrinked bytes from virtual consoles (inittab), ipv6, udev, and something more
My initial efforts are targeted to have an headless arm device, as many of you in the forum I'm using the board for dealing with I/O or manage few small services (Samba, httpd servers, ...), this is not suitable as a development station or if you just need to have X up and running, but you can obviously get back to raspbian just by using original repositories.
I'm also developing an image from scratch, not based on debian; I'm now working with the Cross-LFS book and I guess I could create a 30-40Mb image (10-15Mb with uclibc) but I guess it's a little bit premature at the moment, I'm still fighting with ARMHF patches so it could be too early for a stable release. The raspbian has a huge repository (that's the real benefit) so if you've for example your own python program to put on it after the initial installation you just need to install missing libs with apt-get
Hope it helps

Ben

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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 12:02 pm

I'd be pretty interested in what you could get out of a minimal Buildroot/Cross-LFS system. Maybe with systemd for startup, connman for connection wired/wireless/dhcp. Please do keep us updated.

By the way, have you actually had issues with the current SD card resizing implementation or do you just prefer the two reboot approach for being somehow cleaner?

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 12:49 pm

1)
I've had few troubles with online partitioning, that's why I'm using a two boot approach. The biggest issue is focused on main root partition, as you may know it's quite hard to resize your root part while running (even if mounted ro), so I've decided to partition the SD card (with a small calculation on available size to fit every single byte in your SD) and boot it to notify changes to the kernel, this is a safer and reliable approach when compared with other methods. I also don't use tricks to cheat fdisk/gparted tools. I've also created my raspi-config script to have a pleasant menu for common operations
2)
Arm Hard Float patches are really interesting, there're noticeable differences in terms of speed when compared with "standard arm". I guess I can have something working but I'm even studying how can I get a rid of the first FAT16 partition in order to use a native Linux filesystem, but it's really hard to avoid it, few files are needed from the boot loader in order to init the hw (read: video card), I've just wiped out my original ARM toolchain and I'm investigating the quickest way to create a new one tailored to my lovely Raspi


Ben

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jojopi
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 6:27 pm

Andrea wrote:I also don't use tricks to cheat fdisk/gparted tools.
You use the same trick as everyone else: you delete the partition while it is still in use (albeit read-only), and create a new bigger one ready to be recognised on the next boot. The extra step of going read-only is necessary only because parted is fussier than lower-level tools such as fdisk or sfdisk.

You have not explained the extra reboot after the resize2fs. At this point you are right at the end of rc.local, so effectively fully booted and ready to go.

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Tue Sep 11, 2012 8:54 pm

Second extra boot is not necessary at all, I've used it to see common messages on stdout without resize2fs output in the middle, as already mentioned by you I've just put the script on rc.local and promptly removed from it when finished.
I had thought of using a second kernel on first partition, just a minimal one with initrd, busybox and a root ram disk for freely resizing partition two and using resize2fs after it, but I still need to reboot the machine at least one time to use the Raspi with the good kernel so a boot still occours :-)

Ben

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wallarug
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Wed Sep 12, 2012 6:31 am

Is your image avaible to download? And will you eventually incorporate RPi.GPIO-0.3.1a as well?

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wallarug
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Wed Sep 12, 2012 12:06 pm

What is the password/ username to get onto the image?

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wallarug
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Wed Sep 12, 2012 12:19 pm

wallarug wrote:What is the password/ username to get onto the image?
Found it!

http://moebiuslinux.sourceforge.net/doc ... ion-guide/

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Wed Sep 12, 2012 1:16 pm

User: root
Passwd: raspi
no other users available on default image

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Sander
Posts: 174
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 11:45 am

I've downloaded, unpacked and written the image a 2GB SD card. Booting works well, but I get an warning: "[warn] Activating swap ... failed".

And indeed there is no swap:

Code: Select all

[email protected]:~# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:           215         33        181          0          6         16
-/+ buffers/cache:         11        203
Swap:            0          0          0
[email protected]:~# 

[email protected]:~# df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs          1.6G  579M  910M  39% /
/dev/root       1.6G  579M  910M  39% /
tmpfs            22M  188K   22M   1% /run
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs            44M     0   44M   0% /tmp
tmpfs            10M     0   10M   0% /dev
tmpfs            44M     0   44M   0% /run/shm
/dev/mmcblk0p1   56M   34M   23M  61% /boot
[email protected]:~#

[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab
proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
/dev/mmcblk0p1  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       0
/dev/mmcblk0p2  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       0
/dev/mmcblk0p3  none            swap    sw                0       0
[email protected]:~#

[email protected]:~# fdisk /dev/mmcblk0p3
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x15a86b5e.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help): 

Command (m for help): Command (m for help): q

[email protected]:~# 

Tips how to solve this?

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 1:12 pm

I've tried yesterday evening on a 2Gb SD (Sandisk) and it worked fine, I've seen your latest output but the device is not /dev/mmcblk0p3, it's /dev/mmcblk0
can you please post me an fdisk -l /dev/mmcblk0 or an fdisk (p to print part table), what happens after a reboot ? I can see the swap automatically activated only on the latest boot on mine

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Sander
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 1:16 pm

Ah ... It seems the SD-card (or the formatting) is faulty: see the log below from /var/log/syslog on Ubuntu when I put in the card into my laptop.

EDIT: it's a micro-SD-card. When I put it in the USB-adapter (instead of the SD-card-adapter), Ubuntu has no problem with it. See second log.


I've ordered two new SD-cards.

Code: Select all

Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.713616] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  <<vendor>> ASC=0xff ASCQ=0xffASC=0xff <<vendor>> ASCQ=0xff
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.713629] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb] CDB: Read(10): 28 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 08 00
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.713645] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 0
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715927] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb] Device not ready
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715933] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715940] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  Sense Key : Not Ready [current] 
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715948] Info fld=0x0
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715957] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  <<vendor>> ASC=0xff ASCQ=0xffASC=0xff <<vendor>> ASCQ=0xff
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715971] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb] CDB: Read(10): 28 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 08 00
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.715990] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 0
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718316] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb] Device not ready
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718322] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718328] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  Sense Key : Not Ready [current] 
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718335] Info fld=0x0
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718338] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb]  <<vendor>> ASC=0xff ASCQ=0xffASC=0xff <<vendor>> ASCQ=0xff
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718349] sd 14:0:0:0: [sdb] CDB: Read(10): 28 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 08 00
Sep 13 15:14:39 R540 kernel: [64595.718364] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 0

Code: Select all

Sep 13 15:20:14 R540 kernel: [64930.490026] usb 2-1.2: new high-speed USB device number 16 using ehci_hcd
Sep 13 15:20:14 R540 kernel: [64930.584160] scsi16 : usb-storage 2-1.2:1.0
Sep 13 15:20:14 R540 mtp-probe: checking bus 2, device 16: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.0/usb2/2-1/2-1.2"
Sep 13 15:20:14 R540 mtp-probe: bus: 2, device: 16 was not an MTP device
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.581358] scsi 16:0:0:0: Direct-Access     USB Mass Storage Device        PQ: 0 ANSI: 0 CCS
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.582815] sd 16:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 0
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.584124] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] 3862528 512-byte logical blocks: (1.97 GB/1.84 GiB)
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.584641] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.584651] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 03 00 00 00
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.585140] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page present
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.585150] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.590322] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page present
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.590330] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.594431]  sdb: sdb1 sdb2 sdb3
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.597556] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page present
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.597564] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
Sep 13 15:20:15 R540 kernel: [64931.597571] sd 16:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
Sep 13 15:20:16 R540 kernel: [64932.161595] EXT4-fs (sdb2): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 3:44 pm

I don't have a 2Gb micro SD card but I can do some extra tests with a 4Gb micro and an adapter to see how it goes, don't know if there're differences but I'll surely do some checks. I'm glad you've found the problem

Baldrick1
Posts: 29
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 8:13 pm

Hi,
Just popping in to say thanks, this is pretty much just what I'm after. Not for the space as I already have an 8Gb card, but for the fact that there are no services installed that aren't required.

One comment I have though is that you may want to help out the Windows noobs (of which I am one) and mention in the installation instructions that you can also use Win32DiskImager. This is the standard app that Raspbian uses and works for your image although you don't give it a mention in the instructions. You will probably find that a lot of your users (such as myself) are ex-full-Raspbian users so perhaps worth a line or two in the instructions.

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 13, 2012 9:02 pm

Two things:
@Sander:
I've tried with a 4Gb Sandisk micro SD card, Kingston adapter (doesn't matter but I've mentioned it anyway) and tried the same process. I haven't had any issues, maybe there's something wrong with your SD but I don't have any troubles (yet), I must admit I need to have a broader hardware choice to do proper tests, in fact I'm using only Sandisk, Emtec and Kingston SD cards. Different sizes from 1Gb up to 8Gb, that's what I've here. Please report your thoughts in the website so we can improve something (if it's not related to the raspi hw itself)


@Baldrick1
You're absolutely right, I've did a lot of mistakes but I'd like to thank you and other folks with their private messages for driving me in the right direction.
- I'm a linux user, sometimes multiplatform for me means only Linux and OS-X (only on command line :-) ) and I've just forgot to mention instructions for the 90% of the computer users, I don't use MS OSes but I need to do some tests and provide proper documentation for Win users, even if WinDD or tools like that are pretty easy to use
- Noob doesn't mean stupid, if I write only quick notes for geeks I'm cutting down feedback and useful comments from other respectable users of the community
- I need to organize a FAQ section to improve current lack of documentation, I've just started to collect feedback, send me messages or write down comments on pages so I can follow you where possible
- My absolute respect goes to Raspbian developers, I've just cut off from the base distro what I don't really use to have a really compact image. I use my Raspberry (I've just ordered few cards more) as an embedded arm development machine, I'm pretty close to guys using it for dealing with I/O or to folks using the card as an headless (and small) server for basic tasks (samba, torrent, dnsmasq, ...). That's why I was tired of ripping off unused packages each time I create a new image
- There's a lot of job that could be done on this image, I'm absolutely sure I can cut 5-10Mb of RAM or maybe more, there's always some space for improvements, that's why I need every single comment from noob or geeks to have a better image
- I'd like to collaborate with other guys if someone is interested in it, it's not my job it's just a funny project in my spare time
- Yes, I know, my English really sucks but I hope I can improve it as well, just drop me notes when my grammar is obscure

Have fun
Ben

Andrea
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Fri Sep 14, 2012 10:03 am

@Baldrick1 @Win users
Thanks for your suggestion, that's what I've done: http://moebiuslinux.sourceforge.net/doc ... e/windows/ how is it ?

Baldrick1
Posts: 29
Joined: Thu Aug 02, 2012 3:37 pm

Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Fri Sep 14, 2012 1:16 pm

It looks great. Hopefully this will encourage more users to this variant of Raspbian :)

stirra
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Thu Sep 20, 2012 8:06 pm

Nice work, Ben. Would you consider going one step further and
"hardening" your distro with ro root filesystem to protect against
powerfail sd card corruption? I've been struggling with that problem
with the full-blown raspbian image. Since yours is directed specifically
at embedded systems, it would make sense to provide powerfail
protection in it. I'd like to have /var in ramfs too, but that looks non-trivial
to accomplish.

-- Ralph

glotzi
Posts: 4
Joined: Tue Jun 19, 2012 9:17 am

Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Fri Sep 21, 2012 7:51 am

stirra wrote:Would you consider going one step further and
"hardening" your distro with ro root filesystem to protect against
powerfail sd card corruption?
This would be a great idea and enhancement.

Andrea
Posts: 15
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Contact: Website

Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Fri Sep 21, 2012 11:11 pm

I already did something like that in the past for personal usage.
I've a common Intel Atom platform running debian for an home server; to save electricity, avoid hd hw failures and have a minimal image I've previously created a readonly Debian distro in 300-400Mb. In that case I've avoided hard disks to save power (15W for every running 3" HD) and with an underclocked Atom I was able to have a 24h system in just 20-22W. In that case I've used a 500Mb USB stick because I still have a lot of them, they were cheap and easily replaceable. To avoid every possible management and failure I've created a R/O system able to boot, save log on ram disk and periodically wipe them (or cat something to dev/null). UnionFS on several parts of the root partition gives me the power to edit files and do tests, to restore the original state I just need a reboot.
I was tempted to recreate the same thing for my new raspberry, I've bought it to replace the atom board (2-5W vs 20-22W) and it was a nice idea to minimize SD card usage but I didn't do that yet. I'm currently fighting with two different ideas in my mind:
- Get a rid of the debian image and recreate everything from scratch, I've experience with toolchains and buildroot, hopefully I can create a full image in just 10-20Mb of ram and 30-50Mb of disk image. But I need to study ArmHF patches, optimize the whole system a little more and deal with some sort of rude package system to avoid a monolithic image (useless)
- Continue with a new optimization of the Debian/ArmHF port, in this case the final image is still pretty fat (debian minimal image is not so "minimal" anymore); I'll never have problem with dependencies (that's why I use Debian where needed) but most part of my time will go on shrinking or rebuilding packages to avoid unused stuff (dbus, X11, cups, ...), patching or recompiling kernel and so on, but it will be pretty hard to go under 20Mb of RAM with a stock kernel and basic services, run an SSH daemon and keep basic packages in this system without a swap area. At least with buildroot I can try to switch between glibc and uclibc

After it I was thinking about having a read only image, but I'm in a memory constrained system so I cannot use a massive RAM disk and I need to turn off swap as well to save SD write cycles, with current image I've a swap area but I'm planning to avoid it when I'll solve memory occupation for various services; with an atom board it's really easy to purchase a 1-2-4Gb DIMM and dedicate a part of the memory to unionFS or a Ram disk.
I'm an hardcore gentoo user but in this case Debian has the most advanced arm-hf optimization (when talking about mainstream distros) and Cross-LFS is not so far from buildroot (where a basic port for arm exists). I'll surely let you know how it goes, by now I'm planning to buy more Raspi cards to do some sort of massive tests with multiple solutions, my current development environment is currently slowing me down a little bit.

Ben

GeorgeIoak
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Sat Sep 22, 2012 12:37 am

Your project looking interesting. With your minimal image how is the boot time? Is there anything removed that would prevent the playback of videos?

tclab
Posts: 1
Joined: Sat Sep 22, 2012 12:30 am

Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Sat Sep 22, 2012 12:50 am

In response to the earlier post about the swap failure, I also got the error at startup:

This informed me that I did in fact have a swap partition:

Code: Select all

fdisk -l
However, the following did not list any active swap locations:

Code: Select all

swapon -s
This did the trick:

Code: Select all

mkswap /dev/mmcblk0p3
After that, swapon -s looks normal and I no longer get the failure message.

Switching topics, I've noticed a delayed ntp "step" message that pops after the log in prompt and usually as I'm typing my password. It's a bit annoying. Any way to get rid of it?

And finally, I'm getting a failure message when shutting down. Some process can't be killed during shutdown. Any idea what it might be?

Thanks!
Chris

chris57100
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Re: Raspbian minimal image now ready (<1Gb)

Wed Dec 05, 2012 12:22 pm

Andrea wrote:Hi folks,
I've just created a little spinoff of raspbian, it's not an huge project and it will never be.
...
Hi Andrea
i would like to thank you for your distrib Moebius ! It works really great : only 27Mb in memory after the first start that's amazing
I use this distrib in all my tutorials to build my own home server !
Thanks again ! :D
Raspberry Pi Home Server : http://www.pihomeserver.fr
Software and electronic tutorials : Samba, Airplay, CUPS, Time machine, Nginx, Owncloud, rTorrent, Wordpress, etc.
Full Wi-Fi hotspot installation on a RPi 3 including a captive portal and freeradius management: https://github.com/pihomeserver/Kupiki-Hotspot-Script

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