The software for https://learn.adafruit.com/pi-thermal-printer/overview is on the Occidentalis distro but it doesn't work with the Raspberry Pi board I have. I really doubt Adafruit is ever going to update it again. Is there anybody that can put the software from Occidentalis on Raspbian? I kinda want my printer up and running again. Had to get a replacement board.
It's kinda difficult to advise without knowing what software you need.
Maybe try following their instructions but using raspbian instead and see if they work and if not what exactly doesn't work. Once we know that we are more likely to be able to point you in the right direction.