I think the "respawning too fast" is because the X-Server could not sucessfully be started.
Because you say you're new to the linux-world i'll try to explain what the X-Server is and why it probobly fails to start. (Sorry for my lack of English.)
On Linux the graphical environment is not part of the basic operation system, but it is an application. This means it optional - you can install and start it if you want, but you don't have to. You even could theoretical use an other graphical system by replacing the application with an other - but right now only the X.org X-Server is mature enough.
At the end of the boot cycle Debian tries to start the X-Server. Usally the system is so configurated, that if the X-Server crashes it will be restartet (--> respawning). "Respawning too fast" means that the X-Server crashed already a few times just a moment after it was started. This usually means that the graphic driver could not be started.
So why does the graphic driver does not start on a perconfigurated, kown-to-work image? I think this is because it does work on a raspberry pi, but the hardware qemu emulates is very different form the Raspberry Pi. Qemu emulates very x86-style hardware and especially the graphic card on the R. Pi is very different from the qemu one. I think the kernel you are using does not support x86-style graphic cards. So all you have to do is to use an other ARMv6 Linux Kernel which does support this graphic card.
Maybe someone in the forum will post a link to a precompiled, ready-to-use kernel for Debian.
As you never have used Linux so far, you propably want to install it on an x86 computer and learn how Linux works. For Windows users Linux can be very frustrating at the beginning (at least it was that way for me). But after a few weeks it becomes your best fried and you propably will use windows only for video games.
If you want to install Debian make sure you can look in the install-guide while you are installing and make sure you know what package management is.
( --> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Package_management_system