Depends on the adapter, they are all not created equal, regardless of what the spec's say.
Some, so-called Raspberry Pi power supplies are just re-purposed phone chargers, and since charging phone batteries does not require precise voltage control, they may have poor voltage regulation. I have tested 5V/2.4A chargers that dipped well below 5V at only a 1A load. If your "power supply" can maintain 5V while the HDD spins up (which could require 1A+ of current), then it will work. If it drops below 4.75V under load, the HDD could have problems (and if it drops below 4.63V the Pi3 will turn off the red power LED to indicate a low voltage condition).
Give it a try and if it seems to boot and run, work the system for a while (give it a good workout), then try this command:
If you get a non-zero result, post it here.
I routinely use USB hard drives up to 2TB on my Pi systems (powered by Pi USB port). So it should work if you have a good Pi PSU
My mind is like a browser. 27 tabs are open, 9 aren't responding,
lots of pop-ups...and where is that annoying music coming from?