I have used many of my micro-USB cables interchangeably on my Pi computers and Samsung Adaptive Fast charge phone with no issues whatsoever. I can't imagine what the Pi could even do to a cable, or how it could affect adaptive fast charging, which uses a data handshake with the phone to initiate, while the Pi power port doesn't even have data lines.
Perhaps you need to purchase better quality cables? ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
However, the recommendation of getting a dedicated PSU for your Pi is sound. The official RPF power supply is affordable and a proven performer. It outputs 5.1V at up to 2.5A and has nice fat 18 AWG power wires. I recently received one and I've found it works well, but I haven't had time to do any really heavy stress/load testing on it (although others hear on the forums have, and recommend it).
Personally, I run my Pi computers and charge my phone with a pair of RAVPower chargers which support Samsung Adaptive Fast Charge and Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0 on one port, and have a second "iSmart" port for high current 5V charging. I usually use the iSmart port for the Pi, but I have often used both ports to power two Pi computers simultaneously, and have never had any trouble fast charging my phone afterword.
I have a collection of micro USB cables from iSeeker, Monoprice, Tronsmart and Volutz. The Monoprice Premium cables are my favorite due to their small connector heads and high flexibility, but they are not the most durable if you are hard on cables (I've never had one fail on me, but my friend Ross has broken several). The iSeeker nylon braided cables with aluminum connector shells are more durable, but a lot less flexible (I use those in my car, and they're still working great after 2.5 years). Volutz probably makes the best micro USB cables available, but the connector is a tight fit, which I suppose is both good and bad (depending on how often you want to connect and disconnect the device). The Pi and Tinker Board servers I have running 24/7 both have their power delivered by short Volutz ArmorCord series micro USB cables.
RaTTuS wrote: ↑
Wed Aug 15, 2018 10:44 am
Fast Charge cables basically have the 2 data pins shorted,
That's an old standard that's not used any longer (that I am aware of). Newer fast charging systems use a data handshake with the device to determine compatibility for fast charging (and what fast charging system to use for the smart chargers).
My mind is like a browser. 27 tabs are open, 9 aren't responding,
lots of pop-ups...and where is that annoying music coming from?