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Craggus2000
Posts: 21
Joined: Wed Jan 15, 2014 8:25 pm
Location: Essex, UK

Amiga 500 keyboard

Wed Jul 28, 2021 8:10 am

Hi All, I know this isn't totally related to the Pi, but following on from this thread:
viewtopic.php?f=41&t=10990

I have successfully setup an Arduino Leonardo with the following code to turn my Amiga 500 keyboard in to a USB HID device so I can connect it to my Pi.

Code: Select all

/*
    Copyright 2016 Janne Lof

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/

/*
During 2019, Yann Serra added RJ45 colors to A1000 connection diagram,
and a delay to make the Caps Lock on Amiga keyboards compatible with Mac.
*/

/*

For protocol spec see:###
http://amigadev.elowar.com/read/ADCD_2.1/Hardware_Manual_guide/node0173.html

The keyboard transmits 8-bit data words serially to the main unit. Before
the transmission starts, both KCLK and KDAT are high.  The keyboard starts
the transmission by putting out the first data bit (on KDAT), followed by
a pulse on KCLK (low then high); then it puts out the second data bit and
pulses KCLK until all eight data bits have been sent.  After the end of
the last KCLK pulse, the keyboard pulls KDAT high again.

When the computer has received the eighth bit, it must pulse KDAT low for
at least 1 (one) microsecond, as a handshake signal to the keyboard.  The
handshake detection on the keyboard end will typically use a hardware
latch.  The keyboard must be able to detect pulses greater than or equal
to 1 microsecond.  Software MUST pulse the line low for 85 microseconds to
ensure compatibility with all keyboard models.

All codes transmitted to the computer are rotated one bit before
transmission.  The transmitted order is therefore 6-5-4-3-2-1-0-7. The
reason for this is to transmit the  up/down flag  last, in order to cause
a key-up code to be transmitted in case the keyboard is forced to restore
 lost sync  (explained in more detail below).

The KDAT line is active low; that is, a high level (+5V) is interpreted as
0, and a low level (0V) is interpreted as 1.

             _____   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   _________
        KCLK      \_/   \_/   \_/   \_/   \_/   \_/   \_/   \_/
             ___________________________________________________________
        KDAT    \_____X_____X_____X_____X_____X_____X_____X_____/
                  (6)   (5)   (4)   (3)   (2)   (1)   (0)   (7)

                 First                                     Last
                 sent                                      sent

The keyboard processor sets the KDAT line about 20 microseconds before it
pulls KCLK low.  KCLK stays low for about 20 microseconds, then goes high
again.  The processor waits another 20 microseconds before changing KDAT.
*/

// Connection diagrams for various keyboard models:
// ------------------------------------------------
//
// A500 ----------------
// Keyboard   Leonardo
// Connector  IO
// 1 KBCLK    8
// 2 KBDATA   9
// 3 KBRST    10 (not used in this version)
// 4 5v       VCC (5V)
// 5 NC       -
// 6 GND      GND
// 7 LED1     VCC (5V)
// 8 LED2     -
//
// A1000 ---------------
// Keyboard   Leonardo
// Connector  IO
// 1 5V       VCC (5V)  (RJ45: White+Green)
// 2 KBCLK    8         (RJ45: Blue)
// 3 KBDATA   9         (RJ45: Blue+White)
// 4 GND      GND       (RJ45: Green)
// 5 NC       -
//
// A2000/A3000 ---------
// Keyboard   Leonardo
// Connector  IO
// 1 KBCLK    8
// 2 KBDATA   9
// 3 NC       -
// 4 GND      GND
// 5 5V       VCC (5V)
//
// A4000/CD32 ----------
// Keyboard   Leonardo
// Connector  IO
// 1 KBDATA   9
// 2 TXD *    -
// 3 GND      GND
// 4 5V       VCC (5V)
// 5 KBCLK    8
// 6 RXD *    -
// *) NC on A4000
//
// CDTV ----------------
// Keyboard   Leonardo
// Connector  IO
// 1 GND      GND
// 2 KBDATA   9
// 3 KBCLOCK  8
// 4 5V       VCC (5V)
// 5 KBSENSE  -
//
//
// Connection diagrams for joysticks:
// ------------------------------------------------
//
// JOYSTICK1 (Leonardo/Pro Micro)
// DB9        Arduino
// 1 Up       1 (TXD)  PD3
// 2 Down     0 (RXD)  PD2
// 3 Left     2        PD1
// 4 Right    3        PD0
// 5 Pot      -
// 6 Button1  4        PD4
// 7 5V       VCC (5V)
// 8 GND      GND
// 9 Button2  6        PD7
//
// JOYSTICK2 (Leonardo)
// DB9        Arduino
// 1 Up       A0       PF7
// 2 Down     A1       PF6
// 3 Left     A2       PF5
// 4 Right    A3       PF4
// 5 Pot      -
// 6 Button1  A4
// 7 5V       VCC (5V)
// 8 GND      GND
// 9 Button2  A5
//
// JOYSTICK2 (Pro Micro)
// DB9        Arduino
// 1 Up       A0       PF7
// 2 Down     A1       PF6
// 3 Left     A2       PF5
// 4 Right    A3       PF4
// 5 Pot      -a
// 6 Button1  15       PB1
// 7 5V       VCC (5V)
// 8 GND      GND
// 9 Button2  16       PB2

#if ARDUINO > 10605
#include <Keyboard.h>
#endif

// arduino pin mappings
#define JUMPER_CAPS 2
#define SWITCH_ALT_KEYMAP 4

#define LED_GREEN 6 // 'in use' violet
#define LED_RED   7 // 'status' blue
#define PIN_KLCK  8  // black
#define PIN_KDAT  9  // brown
#define PIN_KBRST 10 // red

#define BITMASK_KLCK 0b00010000
#define BITMASK_KDAT 0b00100000

// following keycodes are missing from arduino library
// Keyboard library maps USB HID usage codes to 136+<usage code>
#define KEYCODE_OFFSET   136

#define KEY_KPRIGHTPAREN (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x47) // scrolllock  // Does currently not seem to be mapped in V4
#define KEY_KPLEFTPAREN  (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x53) // numlock     // Does currently not seem to be mapped in V4
#define KEY_KPSLASH     (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x54)
#define KEY_KPASTERISK  (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x55)
#define KEY_KPMINUS     (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x56)
#define KEY_KPPLUS      (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x57)
#define KEY_KPENTER     (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x58)
#define KEY_KP1         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x59)
#define KEY_KP2         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5a)
#define KEY_KP3         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5b)
#define KEY_KP4         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5c)
#define KEY_KP5         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5d)
#define KEY_KP6         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5e)
#define KEY_KP7         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x5f)
#define KEY_KP8         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x60)
#define KEY_KP9         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x61)
#define KEY_KP0         (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x62)
#define KEY_KPDOT       (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x63)
#define KEY_TOPLEFT     (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x35)
#define KEY_ISOLEFT     (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x64)
#define KEY_NON_US_HASH (KEYCODE_OFFSET+0x32)

// mappings from amiga raw codes to arduino keyboard
// library codes
static uint8_t keycode[2][0x78] = {{ // normal keymap
  [0]    = KEY_TOPLEFT, // grave
  [1]    = '1',
  [2]    = '2',
  [3]    = '3',
  [4]    = '4',
  [5]    = '5',
  [6]    = '6',
  [7]    = '7',
  [8]    = '8',
  [9]    = '9',
  [10]   = '0',
  [11]   = '-', // minus
  [12]   = '=', // equal
  [13]   = '\\', //KEY_BACKSLASH,
  [14]   =  0, // not a key
  [15]   = KEY_KP0,
  [16]   = 'q',
  [17]   = 'w',
  [18]   = 'e',
  [19]   = 'r',
  [20]   = 't',
  [21]   = 'y',
  [22]   = 'u',
  [23]   = 'i',
  [24]   = 'o',
  [25]   = 'p',
  [26]   = '[', //KEY_LEFTBRACE,
  [27]   = ']', //KEY_RIGHTBRACE,
  [28]   =  0,  // not a key
  [29]   = KEY_KP1,
  [30]   = KEY_KP2,
  [31]   = KEY_KP3,
  [32]   = 'a',
  [33]   = 's',
  [34]   = 'd',
  [35]   = 'f',
  [36]   = 'g',
  [37]   = 'h',
  [38]   = 'j',
  [39]   = 'k',
  [40]   = 'l',
  [41]   = ';', //KEY_SEMICOLON,
  [42]   = '\'', //KEY_APOSTROPHE,
  [43]   = KEY_NON_US_HASH, //KEY_BACKSLASH,
  [44]   =  0,  // not a key
  [45]   = KEY_KP4,
  [46]   = KEY_KP5,
  [47]   = KEY_KP6,
  [48]   = KEY_ISOLEFT, //KEY_102ND,
  [49]   = 'z',
  [50]   = 'x',
  [51]   = 'c',
  [52]   = 'v',
  [53]   = 'b',
  [54]   = 'n',
  [55]   = 'm',
  [56]   = ',', //KEY_COMMA,
  [57]   = '.', //KEY_DOT,
  [58]   = '/', //KEY_SLASH,
  [59]   = 0,  // not a key
  [60]   = KEY_KPDOT,
  [61]   = KEY_KP7,
  [62]   = KEY_KP8,
  [63]   = KEY_KP9,
  [64]   = ' ', //KEY_SPACE,
  [65]   = KEY_BACKSPACE,
  [66]   = KEY_TAB,
  [67]   = KEY_KPENTER,
  [68]   = KEY_RETURN, //KEY_ENTER,
  [69]   = KEY_ESC,
  [70]   = KEY_DELETE,
  [71]   = 0, // not a key
  [72]   = 0, // not a key
  [73]   = 0, // not a key
  [74]   = KEY_KPMINUS,
  [75]   = 0, // not a key
  [76]   = KEY_UP_ARROW, //KEY_UP,
  [77]   = KEY_DOWN_ARROW, //KEY_DOWN,
  [78]   = KEY_RIGHT_ARROW, //KEY_RIGHT,
  [79]   = KEY_LEFT_ARROW, //KEY_LEFT,
  [80]   = KEY_F1,
  [81]   = KEY_F2,
  [82]   = KEY_F3,
  [83]   = KEY_F4,
  [84]   = KEY_F5,
  [85]   = KEY_F6,
  [86]   = KEY_F7,
  [87]   = KEY_F8,
  [88]   = KEY_F9,
  [89]   = KEY_F10,
  [90]   = KEY_KPLEFTPAREN,
  [91]   = KEY_KPRIGHTPAREN,
  [92]   = KEY_KPSLASH,
  [93]   = KEY_KPASTERISK,
  [94]   = KEY_KPPLUS,
  [95]   = KEY_PAGE_UP, //KEY_HELP,
  [96]   = KEY_LEFT_SHIFT,
  [97]   = KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT,
  [98]   = KEY_CAPS_LOCK,
  [99]   = KEY_LEFT_CTRL,
  [100]  = KEY_LEFT_ALT,
  [101]  = KEY_RIGHT_ALT,
  [102]  = KEY_LEFT_GUI, //KEY_LEFTMETA,
  [103]  = KEY_RIGHT_GUI, //KEY_RIGHTMETA
}, { // alternative keymap
  [0]    = KEY_TOPLEFT, // grave
  [1]    = '1',
  [2]    = '2',
  [3]    = '3',
  [4]    = '4',
  [5]    = '5',
  [6]    = '6',
  [7]    = '7',
  [8]    = '8',
  [9]    = '9',
  [10]   = '0',
  [11]   = '-', // minus
  [12]   = '=', // equal
  [13]   = '\\', //KEY_BACKSLASH,
  [14]   =  0, // not a key
  [15]   = KEY_KP0,
  [16]   = 'q',
  [17]   = 'w',
  [18]   = 'e',
  [19]   = 'r',
  [20]   = 't',
  [21]   = 'y',
  [22]   = 'u',
  [23]   = 'i',
  [24]   = 'o',
  [25]   = 'p',
  [26]   = '[', //KEY_LEFTBRACE,
  [27]   = ']', //KEY_RIGHTBRACE,
  [28]   =  0,  // not a key
  [29]   = KEY_KP1,
  [30]   = KEY_KP2,
  [31]   = KEY_KP3,
  [32]   = 'a',
  [33]   = 's',
  [34]   = 'd',
  [35]   = 'f',
  [36]   = 'g',
  [37]   = 'h',
  [38]   = 'j',
  [39]   = 'k',
  [40]   = 'l',
  [41]   = ';', //KEY_SEMICOLON,
  [42]   = '\'', //KEY_APOSTROPHE,
  [43]   = KEY_NON_US_HASH, //KEY_BACKSLASH,
  [44]   =  0,  // not a key
  [45]   = KEY_KP4,
  [46]   = KEY_KP5,
  [47]   = KEY_KP6,
  [48]   = KEY_ISOLEFT, //KEY_102ND,
  [49]   = 'z',
  [50]   = 'x',
  [51]   = 'c',
  [52]   = 'v',
  [53]   = 'b',
  [54]   = 'n',
  [55]   = 'm',
  [56]   = ',', //KEY_COMMA,
  [57]   = '.', //KEY_DOT,
  [58]   = '/', //KEY_SLASH,
  [59]   = 0,  // not a key
  [60]   = KEY_KPDOT,
  [61]   = KEY_KP7,
  [62]   = KEY_KP8,
  [63]   = KEY_KP9,
  [64]   = ' ', //KEY_SPACE,
  [65]   = KEY_BACKSPACE,
  [66]   = KEY_TAB,
  [67]   = KEY_KPENTER,
  [68]   = KEY_RETURN, //KEY_ENTER,
  [69]   = KEY_ESC,
  [70]   = KEY_DELETE,
  [71]   = 0, // not a key
  [72]   = 0, // not a key
  [73]   = 0, // not a key
  [74]   = KEY_KPMINUS,
  [75]   = 0, // not a key
  [76]   = KEY_UP_ARROW, //KEY_UP,
  [77]   = KEY_DOWN_ARROW, //KEY_DOWN,
  [78]   = KEY_RIGHT_ARROW, //KEY_RIGHT,
  [79]   = KEY_LEFT_ARROW, //KEY_LEFT,
  [80]   = KEY_F1,
  [81]   = KEY_F2,
  [82]   = KEY_F3,
  [83]   = KEY_F4,
  [84]   = KEY_F5,
  [85]   = KEY_F6,
  [86]   = KEY_F7,
  [87]   = KEY_F8,
  [88]   = KEY_F9,
  [89]   = KEY_F10,
  [90]   = KEY_KPLEFTPAREN,
  [91]   = KEY_KPRIGHTPAREN,
  [92]   = KEY_KPSLASH,
  [93]   = KEY_KPASTERISK,
  [94]   = KEY_KPPLUS,
  [95]   = KEY_PAGE_UP, //KEY_HELP,
  [96]   = KEY_LEFT_SHIFT,
  [97]   = KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT,
  [98]   = KEY_CAPS_LOCK,
  [99]   = KEY_LEFT_CTRL,
  [100]  = KEY_LEFT_ALT,
  [101]  = KEY_RIGHT_ALT,
  [102]  = KEY_LEFT_GUI, //KEY_LEFTMETA,
  [103]  = KEY_RIGHT_GUI, //KEY_RIGHTMETA
}};


class AmigaKb {

  enum { HI = 1, LO = 0 };

  byte klck;
  byte kdata;
  byte kbits;
  bool pulse_started;

  byte get_klck()
  {
    // active high? seems like it is
//    return digitalRead(PIN_KLCK) ? HI : LO;
    return (PINB & BITMASK_KLCK) ? HI : LO;
  }
  byte get_kdat()
  {
    // active low +5V == 0, 0V == 1
//    return digitalRead(PIN_KDAT) ? LO : HI;
    return (PINB & BITMASK_KDAT) ? LO : HI;
  }
  void pulse_kdat_start()
  {
    // pulse low at least for 85 micros
    pinMode(PIN_KDAT, OUTPUT);
    digitalWrite(PIN_KDAT, LOW);
    pulse_started = true;
  }
  void pulse_kdat_end()
  {
    delayMicroseconds(100);
    pinMode(PIN_KDAT, INPUT_PULLUP);
    pulse_started = false;
  }
  bool useCapsKeySpecialHandling() {
    return !digitalRead(JUMPER_CAPS); // jumper on input pin 2 (pull-up -> connect to gnd)
  }
  bool useAlternativeKeymap() {
    return !digitalRead(SWITCH_ALT_KEYMAP); // switch on input pin 4 (pull-up -> connect to gnd)
  }

  void sendkeyevent(int rawkey);

public:

  void green(bool state)
  {
    digitalWrite(LED_GREEN, state ? HIGH : LOW);
  }
  void red(bool state)
  {
    digitalWrite(LED_RED, state ? HIGH : LOW);
  }

  // call this in setup()
  void init();

  // call this in loop(), returns raw keycode or -1 if no key was read
  int pollkey();

  // call this in loop() it will poll amiga keyboard and
  // send USB keypress/releases
  void pollAndSendUSBevent() {
    sendkeyevent(pollkey());
    if (pulse_started)
      pulse_kdat_end();
  }

};

// call this in setup()
void AmigaKb::init()
{
  klck = HI;
  kdata = 0;
  kbits = 0;
  pinMode(JUMPER_CAPS, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(SWITCH_ALT_KEYMAP, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(PIN_KLCK, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(PIN_KDAT, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(PIN_KBRST, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(LED_RED,   OUTPUT);
  pinMode(LED_GREEN, OUTPUT);
  Keyboard.begin();
}

// call this in loop(), returns raw keycode or -1 if no key was read
int AmigaKb::pollkey()
{
  static const byte bitorder[] = { 6,5,4,3,2,1,0,7 };
  int rawkey = -1;

  byte k = get_klck();
  // only react if clock changes
  if ( k != klck ) {
    klck = k;
    // HI --> LO
    if ( klck == LO && kbits <= 7 ) {
      //Serial.print('*');
      kdata |= (get_kdat()<<bitorder[kbits]);
      kbits++;
    // LO --> HI
    } else if ( klck == HI && kbits > 7 ) {
      //Serial.print('+');
      rawkey = kdata;
      kbits = 0;
      kdata = 0;
      pulse_kdat_start();
    }
  }
  return rawkey;
}

void AmigaKb::sendkeyevent(int rawkey)
{
  // no keys
  if (rawkey == -1)
    return;

  // special out of sync code
  if (rawkey == 0xF9) {
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    return;
  }

  // keyboard reset (without reset line)
  if (rawkey == 0xFE) {
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_GUI);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_RIGHT_GUI);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    return;
  }

  byte code = 0x7f & rawkey;
  int table = useAlternativeKeymap() ? 1 : 0;
  // out of range
  if (code >= sizeof(keycode[table])/sizeof(keycode[table][0]))
    return;
  // translate from amiga raw key codes
  code = keycode[table][code];

  // no mapping from amiga codes..
  if (code == 0)
    return;

  // caps lock handling
  // Vampire wants a keypress and release event for enabling/disabling caps lock
  // (instead a press/release pair for each, as usual for USB keyboards)
  // => make this configurable via a jumper
  if (code == KEY_CAPS_LOCK && useCapsKeySpecialHandling()) {
    Keyboard.press(code);
    delayMicroseconds(100); // Mac OS-X will not recognize a very short Caps Lock press
    Keyboard.release(code);
    return;
  }

  if (rawkey & 0x80)
    Keyboard.release(code);
  else
    Keyboard.press(code);
}


// ---------------------------------------------------

AmigaKb amigakb;

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {
  amigakb.init();
  amigakb.red(true);
}

// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {
  amigakb.pollAndSendUSBevent();
}

Please note the code is not my own. I have changed it slightly so that F11 and F12 are not used at all, as I'm using GPIO buttons for these.
I know the alternative layout can also be removed, but I'm just concerned with getting it fully working first lol.

I have one problem, which I can't see the solution to. Although the CAPS lock LED turns on and off when it should, it actually takes 2 presses of the key to engage or disengage the capslock function, this means that somes the LED is on/off when it shouldn't be.
Can anyone see the error in the code above please?
I've cleaned and tested the keyboard on original Amiga hardware and it works correctly, so I know the keyboard is not a fault.

Any help would be greatly appreciated!
Craggus2000
"If it ain't broke, break it and make it better"

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