For ambient temperatures take a look at the DS1820 family. These are one-wire devices, so you can make a small network with several of them connected to the same twisted-pair wire. This would cover your air-temp x4. Put the outside one under an upturned white plastic bowl to keep the rain and sun off.
What is the range of 'surface temperature'? The DS1820 has a range of about -55°C to +125°C.
This leads on to the hot air temperature. 400°F is about 200°C, so it's out of range. I suggest you take a look at thermocouples. Here's a fairly detailed article covering the theory and practical implementation:
http://www.analog.com/library/analogdia ... ouple.html
Humidity sensing (and temperature) is discussed here:
http://www.raspberrypi.org/phpBB3/viewt ... 63&t=47391
Lumens sensing could probably be done with a LDR (light-dependent resistor) with an ADC. If you are lucky you can use a single ADC chip with several inputs for your other sensors.
Windspeed and direction has been covered above, so you're left with the 220V device monitor, which needs a little more explanation. If it's an external system that you are monitoring (not controlling) then perhaps there is a pilot lamp or LED the lights up when it is operating? You can hook up a photodiode to detect if the lamp is on or off, and determine that the device is running or not.
It sounds like you are monitoring a furnace or heater somewhere. This is a common project and you'll find lots of writeups on the net. I suggest you also search for Arduino projects for more ideas, since Arduino is another thing that people like to connect sensors to. Anything that works with Arduino can be made to work with the Pi (the first 'gotcha' being that the Pi's GPIOs work at 3V3, not 5V though).
Oh! This just in...
http://www.maximintegrated.com/datashee ... vp/id/7953
Google for other 'one-wire' sensors and chips.