It looks like the sensor just sends a 32 byte block of data periodically on its serial interface. Each block starts with 0x42 character
It should be possible to get this directly on the Pi fairly straightforwardly. Basically you need the TX output of the sensor connected to serial RX on the Pi. This could either be a USB serial interface plugged into Pi USB or directly on the GPIO pins. For the latter method you need to config the Pi for serial input from those.
The arduino example code is not a good starting point for raspberry code although the routine to check and extract data from the block of bytes can be used as an example.
You need to check out example of say python reading from serial port then code should read characters until it finds 0x42, then read 31 bytes, then check and interpret the block like the arduino code.