It pains me to say it, after half a life time avoiding MS products, but I have been using Windows 10 to develop for everything for nearly 2 years and it has worked out very well.
How so? Well, all the Free and Open Source programs I know and love from Linux run just fine on Windows now a days. Importantly Win 10 now has the Linux Subsystem For Windows, this takes care of running a lot if the command line tools I need which otherwise don't run on Windows, compilers and so on.
Having that, there are limitations still in Windows so it's always good to have a real Linux machine around.
1. Is the Pi 3B the proper choice for this project? HMDI capability!
Sounds like a match made in heaven. GPIO in/out, HDMI display, some simple code in the middle. Updateable over the network.
2. What IDE would most closely resemble the Arduino or MS Visual Studio IDEs that I know well...?
None I hope. Arduino is a bit too simplistic and of no benefit for developing Pi programs. Visual Studio is one of the MS monsters I still aviod.
You don't really need a development environment. Just edit your code in your editor of choice and then compile/run it from the command line. Linux/Unix is a development environment!
On the other hand I love Microsoft's Visual Studio Code. It's Free and Open Source Software, runs on Linux, Mac, Windows. Runs on the Pi.
You could build you application with JS running under Electron: https://electronjs.org/
Hmmm.... speaking of which, someone has already built the kiosk system you need using JS and Electron, Benja,