I have been using my RPi3 for a perl server called FHEM (just google it) and so I collected about 5500 data in a three minute interval from my Pi. I recorded CPU temp as well as load average and got the following pictures which shows a nice relation between the two.
I must remark that this RPi is idle most of the time, so it is only a few times getting above load 1. So, I do not know whether this relation holds in a different environment. Still, the equation reads
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CPU temp = 44°C + 10.2*load average