javij
Posts: 3
Joined: Thu Feb 05, 2015 3:25 pm
Location: Madrid, Spain

reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Thu Feb 05, 2015 3:44 pm

Hello, I am trying to stream video over lan
I have tried this tutorial http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewt ... =26&t=7557 but I basically can't read from /dev/video0, neither with command "cat" nor "dd" :

It is not a problem of permissions, as i tried also as root with same result:

[email protected] ~ $ sudo su
[email protected]:/home/pi# cat /dev/video0
cat: /dev/video0: Invalid argument
[email protected]:/home/pi# dd if=/dev/video0
dd: reading `/dev/video0': Invalid argument
0+0 records in
0+0 records out
0 bytes (0 B) copied, 0.00304586 s, 0.0 kB/s
[email protected]:/home/pi#

For more info:
[email protected]:/home/pi# ls -l /dev/video0
crw-rw---T 1 root video 81, 0 Feb 5 16:12 /dev/video0

I am running raspbian with kernel version 3.12.35

Any advice will be helpfull!

User avatar
AndyD
Posts: 2331
Joined: Sat Jan 21, 2012 8:13 am
Location: Melbourne, Australia
Contact: Website

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Thu Feb 05, 2015 11:03 pm

Unfortunately, only some webcams support mjpeg output and reading from /dev/video*. You will need to use ffmpeg (or something else). This post may be useful.

javij
Posts: 3
Joined: Thu Feb 05, 2015 3:25 pm
Location: Madrid, Spain

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Fri Feb 06, 2015 12:09 am

Ok, I will try to use ffmpeg
But that makes me think.. how does ffmpeg read from the device? I mean, it is reading the data in some way...

Anyway, ffmpeg should be enough by now
Thanks for your response!
J.

User avatar
AndyD
Posts: 2331
Joined: Sat Jan 21, 2012 8:13 am
Location: Melbourne, Australia
Contact: Website

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Fri Feb 06, 2015 2:00 am

javij wrote:Ok, I will try to use ffmpeg
But that makes me think.. how does ffmpeg read from the device? I mean, it is reading the data in some way...
This is the Video for Linux Two example code for Video Capture. There are basically three ways to get data from the device.
  1. Read from the device
  2. Use ioctl() calls and memory mapped buffers
  3. Use ioctl() calls and application allocated buffers
Hope that helps!

javij
Posts: 3
Joined: Thu Feb 05, 2015 3:25 pm
Location: Madrid, Spain

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Sat Feb 07, 2015 1:06 am

Thanks for your help!
I managed to do it, using the v4l2 example. I get a good quality of video and less than 1s of delay on LAN :)

What I did:
In the raspberry:
download the example and compile it (download from here http://linuxtv.org/downloads/v4l-dvb-ap ... ample.html):
gcc example.c -o capturevideo
execute it and send the data with netcat:
./capturevideo -c 1000 -o | nc 192.168.1.110 5050

In the computer:
Create a pipe file:
mkfifo video.fifo
Receive from netcat:
nc -l -p 5050 > video.fifo
And play the stream(in other terminal):
mplayer video.fifo -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=640:h=480:format=yuy2

It is essentially the same procedure of this tutorial: http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewt ... =26&t=7557 but for the webcams where "cat /dev/video0" is not possible

hsu414
Posts: 1
Joined: Fri May 18, 2018 1:17 pm

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Fri May 18, 2018 1:53 pm

javij wrote:
Sat Feb 07, 2015 1:06 am
Thanks for your help!

What I did:
In the raspberry:
download the example and compile it (download from here http://linuxtv.org/downloads/v4l-dvb-ap ... ample.html):
gcc example.c -o capturevideo
execute it and send the data with netcat:
./capturevideo -c 1000 -o | nc 192.168.1.110 5050
Now I am exactly in the same stage. The link you provided is not valid anymore. Can you give some hints? What example is that? I also came from the post of real-time webstreaming...but it seems on one else continue with the problem and can have a solution...

doublehp
Posts: 77
Joined: Wed May 02, 2012 1:11 am

Re: reading from /dev/video0 Invalid argument

Mon Apr 22, 2019 8:45 pm

hsu414 wrote:
Fri May 18, 2018 1:53 pm
Now I am exactly in the same stage. The link you provided is not valid anymore. Can you give some hints? What example is that? I also came from the post of real-time webstreaming...but it seems on one else continue with the problem and can have a solution...
Google ... webarchive ... found it there:

https://web.archive.org/web/20160311025 ... ample.html

But just in case, I will paste the code here:

Code: Select all

/*
 *  V4L2 video capture example
 *
 *  This program can be used and distributed without restrictions.
 *
 *      This program is provided with the V4L2 API
 * see https://linuxtv.org/docs.php for more information
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

#include <getopt.h>             /* getopt_long() */

#include <fcntl.h>              /* low-level i/o */
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <linux/videodev2.h>

#define CLEAR(x) memset(&(x), 0, sizeof(x))

enum io_method {
        IO_METHOD_READ,
        IO_METHOD_MMAP,
        IO_METHOD_USERPTR,
};

struct buffer {
        void   *start;
        size_t  length;
};

static char            *dev_name;
static enum io_method   io = IO_METHOD_MMAP;
static int              fd = -1;
struct buffer          *buffers;
static unsigned int     n_buffers;
static int              out_buf;
static int              force_format;
static int              frame_count = 70;

static void errno_exit(const char *s)
{
        fprintf(stderr, "%s error %d, %s\n", s, errno, strerror(errno));
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

static int xioctl(int fh, int request, void *arg)
{
        int r;

        do {
                r = ioctl(fh, request, arg);
        } while (-1 == r && EINTR == errno);

        return r;
}

static void process_image(const void *p, int size)
{
        if (out_buf)
                fwrite(p, size, 1, stdout);

        fflush(stderr);
        fprintf(stderr, ".");
        fflush(stdout);
}

static int read_frame(void)
{
        struct v4l2_buffer buf;
        unsigned int i;

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                if (-1 == read(fd, buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length)) {
                        switch (errno) {
                        case EAGAIN:
                                return 0;

                        case EIO:
                                /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                                /* fall through */

                        default:
                                errno_exit("read");
                        }
                }

                process_image(buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length);
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
                CLEAR(buf);

                buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) {
                        switch (errno) {
                        case EAGAIN:
                                return 0;

                        case EIO:
                                /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                                /* fall through */

                        default:
                                errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
                        }
                }

                assert(buf.index < n_buffers);

                process_image(buffers[buf.index].start, buf.bytesused);

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                CLEAR(buf);

                buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) {
                        switch (errno) {
                        case EAGAIN:
                                return 0;

                        case EIO:
                                /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                                /* fall through */

                        default:
                                errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
                        }
                }

                for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
                        if (buf.m.userptr == (unsigned long)buffers[i].start
                            && buf.length == buffers[i].length)
                                break;

                assert(i < n_buffers);

                process_image((void *)buf.m.userptr, buf.bytesused);

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                break;
        }

        return 1;
}

static void mainloop(void)
{
        unsigned int count;

        count = frame_count;

        while (count-- > 0) {
                for (;;) {
                        fd_set fds;
                        struct timeval tv;
                        int r;

                        FD_ZERO(&fds);
                        FD_SET(fd, &fds);

                        /* Timeout. */
                        tv.tv_sec = 2;
                        tv.tv_usec = 0;

                        r = select(fd + 1, &fds, NULL, NULL, &tv);

                        if (-1 == r) {
                                if (EINTR == errno)
                                        continue;
                                errno_exit("select");
                        }

                        if (0 == r) {
                                fprintf(stderr, "select timeout\n");
                                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                        }

                        if (read_frame())
                                break;
                        /* EAGAIN - continue select loop. */
                }
        }
}

static void stop_capturing(void)
{
        enum v4l2_buf_type type;

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                /* Nothing to do. */
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF, &type))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMOFF");
                break;
        }
}

static void start_capturing(void)
{
        unsigned int i;
        enum v4l2_buf_type type;

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                /* Nothing to do. */
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
                for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) {
                        struct v4l2_buffer buf;

                        CLEAR(buf);
                        buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                        buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
                        buf.index = i;

                        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                                errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                }
                type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) {
                        struct v4l2_buffer buf;

                        CLEAR(buf);
                        buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                        buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;
                        buf.index = i;
                        buf.m.userptr = (unsigned long)buffers[i].start;
                        buf.length = buffers[i].length;

                        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                                errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                }
                type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
                break;
        }
}

static void uninit_device(void)
{
        unsigned int i;

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                free(buffers[0].start);
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
                for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
                        if (-1 == munmap(buffers[i].start, buffers[i].length))
                                errno_exit("munmap");
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
                        free(buffers[i].start);
                break;
        }

        free(buffers);
}

static void init_read(unsigned int buffer_size)
{
        buffers = calloc(1, sizeof(*buffers));

        if (!buffers) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        buffers[0].length = buffer_size;
        buffers[0].start = malloc(buffer_size);

        if (!buffers[0].start) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
}

static void init_mmap(void)
{
        struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;

        CLEAR(req);

        req.count = 4;
        req.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) {
                if (EINVAL == errno) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
                                 "memory mapping\n", dev_name);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                } else {
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
                }
        }

        if (req.count < 2) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Insufficient buffer memory on %s\n",
                         dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        buffers = calloc(req.count, sizeof(*buffers));

        if (!buffers) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < req.count; ++n_buffers) {
                struct v4l2_buffer buf;

                CLEAR(buf);

                buf.type        = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                buf.memory      = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
                buf.index       = n_buffers;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, &buf))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYBUF");

                buffers[n_buffers].length = buf.length;
                buffers[n_buffers].start =
                        mmap(NULL /* start anywhere */,
                              buf.length,
                              PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE /* required */,
                              MAP_SHARED /* recommended */,
                              fd, buf.m.offset);

                if (MAP_FAILED == buffers[n_buffers].start)
                        errno_exit("mmap");
        }
}

static void init_userp(unsigned int buffer_size)
{
        struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;

        CLEAR(req);

        req.count  = 4;
        req.type   = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) {
                if (EINVAL == errno) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
                                 "user pointer i/o\n", dev_name);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                } else {
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
                }
        }

        buffers = calloc(4, sizeof(*buffers));

        if (!buffers) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < 4; ++n_buffers) {
                buffers[n_buffers].length = buffer_size;
                buffers[n_buffers].start = malloc(buffer_size);

                if (!buffers[n_buffers].start) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                }
        }
}

static void init_device(void)
{
        struct v4l2_capability cap;
        struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap;
        struct v4l2_crop crop;
        struct v4l2_format fmt;
        unsigned int min;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP, &cap)) {
                if (EINVAL == errno) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s is no V4L2 device\n",
                                 dev_name);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                } else {
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYCAP");
                }
        }

        if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE)) {
                fprintf(stderr, "%s is no video capture device\n",
                         dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_READWRITE)) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support read i/o\n",
                                 dev_name);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                }
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_STREAMING)) {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support streaming i/o\n",
                                 dev_name);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                }
                break;
        }


        /* Select video input, video standard and tune here. */


        CLEAR(cropcap);

        cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;

        if (0 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) {
                crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* reset to default */

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop)) {
                        switch (errno) {
                        case EINVAL:
                                /* Cropping not supported. */
                                break;
                        default:
                                /* Errors ignored. */
                                break;
                        }
                }
        } else {
                /* Errors ignored. */
        }


        CLEAR(fmt);

        fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        if (force_format) {
                fmt.fmt.pix.width       = 640;
                fmt.fmt.pix.height      = 480;
                fmt.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV;
                fmt.fmt.pix.field       = V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &fmt))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_S_FMT");

                /* Note VIDIOC_S_FMT may change width and height. */
        } else {
                /* Preserve original settings as set by v4l2-ctl for example */
                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_G_FMT, &fmt))
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_G_FMT");
        }

        /* Buggy driver paranoia. */
        min = fmt.fmt.pix.width * 2;
        if (fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline < min)
                fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline = min;
        min = fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline * fmt.fmt.pix.height;
        if (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage < min)
                fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage = min;

        switch (io) {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
                init_read(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
                init_mmap();
                break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
                init_userp(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
                break;
        }
}

static void close_device(void)
{
        if (-1 == close(fd))
                errno_exit("close");

        fd = -1;
}

static void open_device(void)
{
        struct stat st;

        if (-1 == stat(dev_name, &st)) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Cannot identify '%s': %d, %s\n",
                         dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        if (!S_ISCHR(st.st_mode)) {
                fprintf(stderr, "%s is no device\n", dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        fd = open(dev_name, O_RDWR /* required */ | O_NONBLOCK, 0);

        if (-1 == fd) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open '%s': %d, %s\n",
                         dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
}

static void usage(FILE *fp, int argc, char **argv)
{
        fprintf(fp,
                 "Usage: %s [options]\n\n"
                 "Version 1.3\n"
                 "Options:\n"
                 "-d | --device name   Video device name [%s]\n"
                 "-h | --help          Print this message\n"
                 "-m | --mmap          Use memory mapped buffers [default]\n"
                 "-r | --read          Use read() calls\n"
                 "-u | --userp         Use application allocated buffers\n"
                 "-o | --output        Outputs stream to stdout\n"
                 "-f | --format        Force format to 640x480 YUYV\n"
                 "-c | --count         Number of frames to grab [%i]\n"
                 "",
                 argv[0], dev_name, frame_count);
}

static const char short_options[] = "d:hmruofc:";

static const struct option
long_options[] = {
        { "device", required_argument, NULL, 'd' },
        { "help",   no_argument,       NULL, 'h' },
        { "mmap",   no_argument,       NULL, 'm' },
        { "read",   no_argument,       NULL, 'r' },
        { "userp",  no_argument,       NULL, 'u' },
        { "output", no_argument,       NULL, 'o' },
        { "format", no_argument,       NULL, 'f' },
        { "count",  required_argument, NULL, 'c' },
        { 0, 0, 0, 0 }
};

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
        dev_name = "/dev/video0";

        for (;;) {
                int idx;
                int c;

                c = getopt_long(argc, argv,
                                short_options, long_options, &idx);

                if (-1 == c)
                        break;

                switch (c) {
                case 0: /* getopt_long() flag */
                        break;

                case 'd':
                        dev_name = optarg;
                        break;

                case 'h':
                        usage(stdout, argc, argv);
                        exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);

                case 'm':
                        io = IO_METHOD_MMAP;
                        break;

                case 'r':
                        io = IO_METHOD_READ;
                        break;

                case 'u':
                        io = IO_METHOD_USERPTR;
                        break;

                case 'o':
                        out_buf++;
                        break;

                case 'f':
                        force_format++;
                        break;

                case 'c':
                        errno = 0;
                        frame_count = strtol(optarg, NULL, 0);
                        if (errno)
                                errno_exit(optarg);
                        break;

                default:
                        usage(stderr, argc, argv);
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                }
        }

        open_device();
        init_device();
        start_capturing();
        mainloop();
        stop_capturing();
        uninit_device();
        close_device();
        fprintf(stderr, "\n");
        return 0;
}
Did not try to compile it yet. Will edit this message within 24h to tell.

Edit1: I have been able to compile and run the code; but it does not produce a nice image. I got green/grey image; complete garbage, not just noisy image; complete garbage !!! So, I am trying to run the app locally to the pi, via SSH; these two commands produce almost the same video as when using netcat; they will allow me to tune ./capturevideo and mplayer settings:

Code: Select all

./capturevideo -c 1000 -o | mplayer - -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=640:h=480:format=yuy2 -vo xv
./capturevideo -c 1000 -o | mplayer - -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=640:h=480:format=yuy2 -vo sdl
When I will have a clean image, I will revert to nc.

From time to time, I check sanity of cam and system with this:

Code: Select all

fswebcam -r 640x480 -p YUV420P - > /tmp/cam.$(/bin/date +%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S).jpg

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