I assume your laptop has a SDCard reader, if not get a Fuji USB Reader for a couple of quid.
I also assume your laptop has an optical drive and you have some software to take an *.iso and create a bootable CD.
I also assume your BIOS isn't locked down and your laptop can be encouraged to boot from the optical drive.
Knoppix is a Linux system (like Raspbian) that can be run without doing anything bad to your Windows harddisk (although there is an option to make your machine dual boot either Windows of Knoppix).
Grab the cd from here: http://www.knopper.net/knoppix-mirrors/ ... rrypi.com/
Burn, boot and you get a funny desktop.
Insert the SDCard.
Knoppix should automount any (clean) partitions it can recognise.
Open a command window (this is like logging in to your RPi). We can use dmesg to see what partitions are on the SDCard. We can use mount to see what partitions have been automounted. We can use fsck to do a filesystem check of the SDCard.
So we have a fully fledged system that we can use to tinker with our RPi SDCard (while the RPi is down).
First thing to do is take a copy of the SDCard so that if we mess up we can get back to the current status.
mkdir =p /windows/c/somewhere/safe # I think Knoppix mounts your Windows C: drive on /windows/c - CHECK that
Unmount everything. We shouldn't tinker with mounted filesystem.
Get a backup
dd if=/dev/sda of=/windows/c/somewhere/safe/sdcard-2014-01-01-01.img bs=10M
then when that copy is complete
fsck -aw /dev/sda1 # NOOBS recovery FAT partition
fsck -y /dev/sda2 # NOOBS ext4 partition
fsck -aw /dev/sda5 # Raspbian FAT partition
fsck -y /dev/sda6 # Raspbian ext4 partition
# I'm assuming the SDCard appeared as /dev/sda when you inserted it.
once that's complete take a belts and braces copy
dd if=/dev/sda of=/windows/c/somewhere/safe/2014-01-01-02.img bs=10M
shutdown -h now # we're done with Knoppix for now.
Eject the CD, Pull the SDCard and press enter your machine can boot back into Windows
Stick the SDCard back in your RPi, boot and it should be good to go.
If it isn't then we'll need to boot to NOOBS recovery (by holding the SHIFT key) and run through that process.
We've got two backups (hiding in the c:\somewhere\safe directory) on Windows (so we can use Win32DiskImager with those).