According to the TM1637 datasheet, the minimum high-level input voltage is specified as 0.7*VDD, i.e., 70% of the supply voltage. So with VDD = 5V, the device would recognise a minimum voltage level of 3.5V as a logic high - some 0.2V higher than the Pi's 3.3V logic high level, so it's highly unlikley that you would get reliable operation, if any at all.
The TM1637 is specified for operation over the VDD range 4.5 - 5.5V, so if you ran your display at 4.5V, the corresponding minimum logic high level would be 0.7*4.5 = 3.15V. This is only 0.15V below the Pi's 3.3V high level, so even though it would probably work, it would provide very poor noise margins and could lead to problems with supply tolerances.
A much better solution would be to run your display at 5V and provide your logic levels via an interface device which would provide voltage level translation and guarantee reliable operation. For example, a hex Schmitt trigger such as the 74HCT14 has a maximum positive-going threshold voltage of around 2.0V when operating from a 5V supply. Remember:
1. The device has to be a 74HCT14, not a 74HC14;
2. The 74HCT14 has to be powered from the 5V supply, not 3.3V;
3. Each of the gates is an inverting device, so you need two in series to maintain the correct logic level.