Raspbian comes pre-installed with plenty of software for education, programming and general use. It has Python, Scratch, Sonic Pi, Java, Mathematica and more.
Raspbian Jessie with PIXELImage with PIXEL desktop based on Debian JessieVersion: September 2016Release date: 2016-09-23Kernel version: 4.4Release notes: Link
Raspbian Jessie LiteMinimal image based on Debian JessieVersion: September 2016Release date: 2016-09-23Kernel version: 4.4Release notes: Link
Note: Raspbian and NOOBS contain Java SE Platform Products, licensed to you under the Oracle Binary Code Licence Agreement available here.
Mathematica and the Wolfram Language are included in this release under license and with permission of Wolfram Research, Inc. and may be used for non-commercial purposes only. By using this software you agree to be bound by the Wolfram Raspberry Pi Bundle Licensee Agreement available here.