On Linux, you have a choice of text editors. Some are easy-to-use but have limited functionality; others require training to use and take a long time to master, but offer incredible functionality.
Desktop graphical editors
When using Raspbian Desktop, in the accessories menu there is an option to run a Text Editor. This is a simple editor which opens in a window like a normal application. It allows use of the mouse and keyboard, and has tabs and syntax highlighting.
You can use keyboard shortcuts, such as
Ctrl + S to save a file and
Ctrl + X to exit.
Thonny is a Python REPL and IDE, so you can write and edit Python code in a window and run it from there.
Thonny has independent windows and syntax highlighting, and uses Python 3
See Vim below.
A fast and lightweight IDE, supporting many different file types, including C/C++ and Python. Installed by default on Raspbian.
GNU Nano is at the easy-to-use end of command-line editors. It's installed by default, so use
nano somefile.txt to edit a file, and keyboard shortcuts like
Ctrl + O to save and
Ctrl + X to exit.
Vi is a very old (c. 1976) command-line editor, which is available on most UNIX systems and is pre-installed on Raspbian. It's succeeded by Vim (Vi Improved), which requires installation.
Unlike most editors, Vi and Vim have a number of different modes. When you open Vi with
vi somefile.txt, you start in command mode which doesn't directly permit text entry. Press
i to switch to insert mode in order to edit the file, and type away. To save the file you must return to command mode, so press the
Escape key and enter
:w (followed by
Enter), which is the command to write the file to disk.
To search for the word 'raspberry' in a file, make sure you're in command mode (press
Escape), then type
/raspberry followed by
N to flick forwards/backwards through the results.
To save and exit, enter the command
:wq. To exit without saving, enter the command
Depending on your keyboard configuration, you may find your cursor keys don't work. In this case, you can use the H-J-K-L keys (which move left, down, up, and right respectively) to navigate the file in command mode.
Vim is an extension of Vi and works in much the same way, with a number of improvements. Only Vi is installed by default so to get the full features of Vim, install it with APT:
sudo apt install vim
You can edit a file in Vim with
vim somefile.txt. Vim also has a graphical version which opens in a window and allows interaction with the mouse. This version is installable separately:
sudo apt install vim-gnome
To use the graphical version of Vim, use
gvim somefile.txt. You can save configuration in a
.vimrc file in your user's home directory. To learn more about editing in Vi and Vim, you can run
vimtutor and follow the tutorial.
Emacs is a GNU command-line text editor; it's powerful, extensible, and customisable. You can install it with APT:
sudo apt install emacs
You can use keyboard combination commands, such as
Ctrl + X Ctrl + S to save and
Ctrl + X Ctrl + C to close.